ARP is an abbreviation for Address Resolution Protocol. ARP resolves IP addresses to hardware addresses. Each network adapter has a unique hardware address (commonly referred to as a MAC address), which it uses for identification on the network. TCP/IP communication begins with ARP. ARP resolves IP addressed to the machines network adapter (MAC) addresses for outgoing packets and checks its cache for a correct entry. If no entry is found in the cache, ARP will broadcast a request to the local subnet. ARP will resolve the MAC address to the gateway router address if the packet is not found locally.
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